Using data on worker training programs in South Dakota over the years 2002–11, this study estimates the employment and earnings effects of on-the-job training (OJT) and occupational skills training (OST). Average treatment effects for the first and third calendar quarters after training are reported by: gender, worker type, demographic group, region of residence, and time period of job loss.



  • On-the-job training (OJT) and occupational skills training (OST) both increased the employment rates and incomes of participants
  • OJT participants had $567 more in quarterly earnings in the 3rd quarter after program exit when compared to similar non-participants
  • Training was less effective in the wake of the 2007-09 recession than beforehand
  • Effects of training on women were larger than for men after three calendar quarters
  • Native Americans benefitted more than any other demographic group