Examines the net impacts, costs and benefits of 11 workforce training programs in Washington state. Outcomes of interest included employment, hours, wage rates, earnings, unemployment insurance benefits, and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), Supplemental Security Income (SSI), Food Stamp, and Medicaid benefits.
"This study estimates the net impacts and benefits and costs of 11 workforce development programs administered in Washington State. Six of the programs serve job-ready adults: Workforce Investment Act (WIA) Title I-B Adult programs, WIA Title I-B Dislocated Worker programs, Community and Technical College Job Preparatory Training, Community and Technical College Worker Retraining, Private Career Schools, and Apprenticeships. Three of these programs serve adults with employment barriers: Community and Technical College Adult Basic Skills Education, Division of Vocational Rehabilitation programs, and Department of Services for the Blind programs. The other two programs serve youth: WIA Title I-B Youth programs and Secondary Career and Technical Education" (p.iii). (Abstractor: Author)

Major Findings & Recommendations

The major findings from this study are extensive and provide an in depth exploration of the program participant characteristics, the participation model, propensity score statistics, statistical match, net impacts and subgroup analyses for each of the programs discussed in the report. Program impact highlights are provided below: "WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT (WIA) TITLE I-B ADULTS - The longer-term employment and earnings impacts... are positive and significant...result[ing] in more employment, a slightly higher average hourly wage, and more hours of work per quarter. (p.36) - The short-term impacts on employment and earnings ...are also positive [and] are larger than the longer-term impacts. The earnings impact of $725 per quarter is approximately 15 percent of average earnings for the matched comparison group. (p.36) WIA TITLE I-B DISLOCATED WORKERS: - WIA dislocated worker clients increase[d] their employment rates, average hourly wages, and hours of work. (p.45) - The net impact is almost $1,000, which represents an impact of 15 to 20 percent. (p.45) - Longer-term estimates show reductions in TANF and Food Stamp recipiency and in Medicaid enrollment.(p.47) WIA TITLE I-B YOUTH PROGRAMS: - Employment, hourly wages, and hours of employment net impacts are all negative. (p.57) - Estimates show a significant increase in public assistance participation. (p.57) - longer-term impacts show substantial and significant increases in employment, wage rates, and hours. (p.59) - increase in public assistance (food stamps and Medicaid) take-up seems to continue in the longerterm estimates.(p.59) COMMUNITY AND TECHNICAL COLLEGE JOB PREPARATORY TRAINING: - Short-term and longer-term impacts are quite positive. (p.67) - In the short term, average quarterly earnings increased by over $1,400, or about 25 percent.(p.67) - The longer-term earnings impacts were somewhat smaller, but still quite strong. (p.69) COMMUNITY AND TECHNICAL COLLEGE WORKER RETRAINING PROGRAM: - Short-term impacts reflect a very strong positive, employment rate gain of 7.8 percentage points. (p.81) - The longer-term earnings impacts were similar, although smaller in magnitude. The employment rate and hours increased at levels that were statistically significant.(p. 81)ADULT BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMS ON COMMUNITY AND TECHNICALCOLLEGE CAMPUSES - impacts result in a small, but statistically significant, increase in average quarterly earnings. (p.90)- However... net impacts on participation in TANF, Food Stamps, and Medicaid are all positive and significant.(p.90) - The longer-term net impacts are more negative than the short-term impacts, [but] the employment rate goes up and average quarterly hours increase (p.90) PRIVATE CAREER SCHOOL PROGRAMS - The employment rate net impact... is statistically significant. (100) - Employment, wages, and hours all increase.(101)APPRENTICESHIP PROGRAMS: - Short-term and longer-term impacts for apprenticeship participants are quite positive... average quarterly earnings increased by over $2,700, which is almost 50 percent. (p.107) - The longer-term earnings impacts were also very positive, but were slightly smaller than the short-term net impacts. (p.109)HIGH SCHOOL CAREER AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION (CTE) PROGRAMS - short-term impacts include increases in employment, hourly wage, hours working and quarterly earnings.(p.121) - There is little effect of high school career and technical education on public assistance or UI. (p.121)(Abstractor: Author and Website Staff)